Levers are a commonly used from of simple machine. A lever rotates on a fulcrum. A lever has a point where an applied or effort force exists, and a point where a load or resistance force exists. For a lever to perform work, the effort force must overcome the resistance force.
Levers are divided into three classes. The figure below shows the characteristics used to classify levers, as well as examples of the three classes of levers.
1. Which of the levers shown in the figure above actually consists of two levers that rotate, in opposite directions, around the same fulcrum?
2. You want to move a rock. Where should you put the fulcrum to minimize the effort force needed to overcome the resistance force?A. crowbar
3. Which of the following best describes why a person may not be able to lift up a full wheelbarrow by its handles?
4. A screwdriver is often used as a first class lever to pry open lids (see figure below). Which of the following best supports this statement?A. The effort force is not enough to overcome the resistance force.
B. The resistance force is not enough to overcome the effort force.
C. The effort force is not enough to raise the fulcrum.
D. The resistance force is not enough to raise the fulcrum.
A resource is anything found in nature that can be collected and turned into a useful product. Some resources, call renewable resources, can be reused or replaced by nature relatively quickly. Other resources, call nonrenewable resources, occur in limited amounts and are used faster than nature can replace them. Whether a resource is renewable or nonrenewable affects the way we manage the resource.
A. The screwdriver is being used as a lever that has no fulcrum.
B. The screwdriver is being used as a lever that has two fulcrums.
C. The fulcrum is between the effort force and the resistance force.
D. The effort force is between the fulcrum and the resistance force.
Students were provided the following cross-section of a natural setting which
had been thoroughly explored by a mining company (see figure below). The
students were then asked to come up with some conclusions about the resources in
6. A mining company decided that any iron deposit deeper than 400 meters would cost more to collect than the iron was worth. Which iron deposit(s) in the figure above is/are possible resources for the mining company?A. overpopulated the pond.
B. were not harvested.
C. were taken from the pond faster than they could reproduce.
D. reproduced faster than they could be harvested.
7. Corn can be processed into ethanol that can be used as fuel for cars. Accordingly, ,corn could be considered a renewable replacement for which of the resources shown in the figure above?A. C only
B. A and B only
C. B and C only
D. A, B, and C
8. Which of the following energy resources shown in the figure above could serve as a renewable source of energy?A. iron
Questions 9-12 are based on the following passage and diagramA. oil
D. the Sun
Two scientist traveled to a remote island in the ocean. While on the island,
they discovered several animals never before seen. The scientist identified and
recorded several characteristics of each of the different animals. Those data
are given in the table below.
|Animal||Number of legs||Tail||Food||Habitat|
9. In the classification system shown in the figure above, which box at the bottom will have no animals in it ?
10. Animals B and C are split into two separate categories by using which of the following characteristics in the classification system?A. Box 1
B. Box 2
C. Box 3
D. Box 4
11. Which of the following pairs of animals CANNOT be separated into two different categories in a classification system shown in the figure?A. number of legs
C. food eaten
12. Assume that the scientists wanted to collect information on the plants on the island and then develop a classification system using this information. Of the traits used in the table, which might be used to group plants?A. animals A and C
B. animals B and D
C. animals C and F
D. animals E and F
Questions 13-16 are based on the following passage and diagram.A. number of legs
Many natural ecosystems have been destroyed by human activity. To better
manage our remaining natural ecosystems, we must first understand how the
ecosystems are structured. One way to do this is to determine how the organisms
in the ecosystem obtain the matter and energy they need to survive. The figure
below shows a simplified food web. Use the figure to answer the following
13. Based on the figure above, you would hypothesize that the green plants, unlike animals, can
14. Often, organisms compete with each other for a food source. Which of the following pairs of organisms compete with each other for food?A. make their own food.
B. avoid being eaten by other organisms.
C. get energy from the other organisms.
D. release the energy stored in their food.
15. Based on the figure, how would the owls most likely respond if the mice all died out?A. mice and owls
B. squirrels and owls
C. rabbits and green plants
D. mice and rabbits
16. Which of the following correctly shows one pathway for the flow of energy to an owl?A. The owls would starve.
B. The owls would start eating foxes.
C. The owls would eat more squirrels and rabbits.
D. The owls would eat more green plants.
Questions 17-20 are NOT based on a passageA. green plants--->mice--->squirrels
B. green plants--->squirrels--->owls
D. owls--->green plants---mice
17. A small stone is shot straight up in the air. The figure below shows a plot of the stone's position vs. time (air resistance is ignored). When is the stone moving the fastest?
18. Chemical weathering refers to processes that change the chemical composition of rocks, forming new minerals. Physical weathering refers to processes that break rocks down into smaller pieces without changing the chemical composition of the rocks. Which of the following processes is an example of chemical weathering?
A. 3 - 4 and 4 - 5 seconds
B. 3 - 4 and 7 - 8 seconds
C. 0 - 1 and 4 - 5 seconds
D. 0 - 1 and 7 - 8 seconds
19. Suppose you come to class one day and find some white flakes in the sink of a lab table. What should you do?A. the widening of cracks in rocks by tree roots
B. the rusting of iron-rich rocks
C. the expansion and contraction of rocks as temperatures change
D. the scouring of rocks by windblown sand
20. Aristotle thought that a moving object would stop because its natural state was to be at rest. Newton thought that friction is a force that opposes all motion and eventually stops moving objects. Suppose you were coasting on a level surface on a bicycle and there was NO friction. What would happen to your speed, according to Aristotle and according to Newton?A. Turn on the faucet and rinse the flakes down the drain.
B. Put on gloves and then throw the flakes in the wastebasket.
C. Put on gloves and then put the flakes in a beaker to give to the teacher.
D. Wipe the flakes up with a moist paper towel and then throw the flakes in the garbage.
A. Aristotle: slow and stop;------Newton: slow and stop
B. Aristotle: maintain speed;------Newton: slow and stop
C. Aristotle: maintain speed;------Newton: maintain speed
D. Aristotle: slow and stop;-----Newton: maintain speed.
Ohio Proficiency Tests Practice Test for Grade 9
Lakewood Public Library